Category Archives: Space

The Layers of the Sun’s Atmosphere in Simple Terms

By: Jacob Priest

We all know the person who tries to describe the physical, interatomic materials that are bashed around in the space way above our heads may misinterpret or mislead our first impression. If not, while explaining the listeners may completely lose understanding ultimately deterring interests of whatever was being explained.

With that being said it is also important if not the key to understanding that in space or any process, for instance, there are multiple, simultaneous, things constantly going on. With some basic ideas laid out, it becomes just a little bit easier to understand these more abstract ideas.

The sun is one of those simultaneous variables that brings life to our planet. Not only with our constant feed of heat and light otherwise known as sunlight, also with its massive size that generates the gravitational field running throughout our solar system. Without the sun you wouldn’t have the beautiful birds you see in the mornings or the special wind they fly in, or even the grass and things that they eat out of the grass.

Understanding the layers of the sun and the processes in the core are important if you are exploring anything that deals with extreme temperatures and pressures. Especially when we are taking a closer look at the complex processes of the sun’s atmosphere.

To lay it out flat there are four layers of the sun’s atmosphere. Starting in the innermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere which is the Photosphere. Being so close to the solar surface the Photosphere is mostly covered by granulation which are the patterns on the surface of the sun. After that is the Chromosphere. Then there is a very thin layer only about 60 miles thick called the Transition Region.

In the Transition Region heat is directed down towards the Chromosphere from the corona, in the process producing a thin layer in the sun’s atmosphere that varies from 1,800,000°F all the way down to 40,000°F.  Last but not least is the outermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere which is called the Corona. The Corona is the hottest layer of all the suns layers, exceeding temperatures even produced in the core.

Unlike the internal layers, in the sun’s atmosphere, as you move away from the innermost layer it seems to get hotter. Scientists don’t know exactly why this happens but they speculate that the sun’s magnetic field plays a role in pulling and or pushing heat in or out from or to the core in different regions of the sun’s atmosphere.

Magnetic fields run wild around the layers of the sun’s atmosphere, which can provide more than enough evidence to speculate further. After all, there are more than 10 million frequencies being produced from gasses churning in the sun’s core, who’s to say that doesn’t play a role.

3 NASA Satellites You Should Know About

By: Jacob Priest of AE4TS

Why Satellites are Awesome


Satellites are wonderful tools that help us to understand some of the astronomy, meteorology, oceanography and the geography surrounding our planet. They can help put together the bigger picture to help us further our understanding of our everyday view of life. When you piece it all together we can see how the Earth acts as a Sphere in perfect coalescing perpetual motion. Satellites also give scientist real-time data from environments that are otherwise extremely remote such as south pacific islands, the bottom of the oceans, or even very high cloud tops way up in the atmosphere. There is a set of about 120 satellite’s orbiting earth right now dedicated to tracking weather and climate patterns and Earths overall activity. 





One of the satellites currently orbiting Earth called Swovey is named after a NASA meteorologist scientist and orbits the Earth 14 times a day. Swovey is about the size of a small school bus and helps keep watch on the suns energy output that effects things like weather patterns in a reactively fast time period. Swovey is equipped with a set of sensors called “SEIRS” that can detect energy invisible to the human eye. With one example being the heat off the surface of the earth very accurately in infrared. This helps us to understand the impact of the suns energy on the Earths equator.



Another one of NASA’s satellites named Aqua tracks the interwoven relationship between water vapor and sunlight. We can see from satellite data that off the south-west coast of Africa the surface of the ocean reaches the critical temperature of 80 degrees. This causes the surfaces of the ocean to start evaporating producing billion of tons of water vapor every hour. As the Earth rotates counter-clockwise the water vapor rises and rises until it cools to form storm clouds or thunderstorms. Eventually, these cloud systems gain more energy and make their way through the air over a landmass. 



GOES is an acronym that stands for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. Orbiting 22 thousand miles above the Earth these five separate satellites stay fixed to a geostationary orbit which looks down at the same spot of the Earths surface. These satellites give scientists a unique perspective of the entire Earth 24 hours a day, tracking events that can only be fully observed from space. Overlapping the data from these satellites is how scientists work to understand the complex relationships of Earths cycles.



Satellites Help Us Understand the Bigger Picture     

These are just three of 120 scientific satellites that when put together help us understand and view Earths processes a little clearer. Satellites with all different kinds of equipment ranging from infrared to microwave wavelengths are used to see the Earth in constant motion. Without these high-tech satellites up in the sky, we would know a lot less if anything that we do now about weather and climate. Collecting data from these satellites is what helps Astronomers, meteorologists, oceanographers, and geologists piece together the predictions and answers to Earths weather and climate patterns. 



Article By Jacob Priest of AE4TS